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Corrompre, trafic d’influence, usurpation d’identité…ces pratiques interdites par la RoP Act

Corrompre, trafic d’influence, usurpation d'identité…ces pratiques interdites par la RoP Act

Actualité

Corrompre, trafic d’influence, usurpation d’identité…ces pratiques interdites par la RoP Act

Corrompre, trafic d’influence, usurpation d’identité…ces pratiques interdites par la RoP Act

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Durant les dernières heures de cette campagne électorale à Belle-Rose/Quatre Bornes (No 18), les agents et les proches des candidats vont faire le dernier forcing pour obtenir quelques votes et convaincre les indécis. La veille, des mains invisibles seront, comme le veut la tradition, en action pour jouer leurs dernières cartes. Reste plusieurs pratiques connues et acceptées qui ne sont pas autorisées par la Representation of The People Act de 1958 (RoP). Pleins feux sur certaines sections afin que les électeurs puissent comprendre ce qui est permis et interdit par la loi.

Corrompre, trafic d’influence, usurpation d'identité…ces pratiques interdites par la RoP Act

Corrompre un électeur ou acheter un vote

Un candidat ou encore un de ses agents n’a pas le droit d’acheter ou influencer les électeurs en leur promettant des cadeaux, des emplois ou encore de l’argent. Ce sont des pratiques illégales et punissables par la loi. Personne n’a le droit aussi de demander ou de payer un électeur pour qu’il n’aille pas voter. On note aussi que les candidats n’ont pas le droit de donner de la nourriture, des boissons ou des provisions à des personnes avant, pendant et après les élections afin de les convaincre dans le choix. Toute personne qui accepte ces ‘présents’ est aussi coupable.

Bribery and treating : (1) Any person who—(a) directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf gives, lends, or agrees to give or lend, or offers, promises, or promises to procure or to endeavour to procure, any money or valuable consideration to or for any elector, or to or for any person on behalf of any elector, or to or for any other person, in order to induce any elector to vote or refrained from voting, or corruptly does any such act on account of any elector having voted or refrained from voting at any election;

(b)  directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, gives or procures, or agrees to give or procure, or offers, promises or promises to procure or to endeavour to procure any office, place, or employment, to or for any elector, or to or for any person, on behalf of any elector or for any other person, in order to induce such elector to vote or refrain from voting, or corruptly does any such act on account of any elector having voted or refrained from voting at any election;

(c) directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, makes any such sift, loan, offer, promise, procurement, or agreement as is mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b), to or for any person, in order to induce such person to procure, or endeavour to procure, the return of any person as an elected member of a council or the vote of any elector at any election;

(d) upon or in consequence of any such gift, loan, offer, promise, procurement or agreement, procures or engages, promises or endeavours to procure, the return of any person as an elected member of a council, or the vote of any elector at any election;

(e) advances or pays, or causes to be paid, any money to or to the use of any other person, with the intent that such money or any part thereof, shall be expended in bribery at any election, or who knowingly pays, or causes to be paid, any money to any person in discharge or repayment of any money in whole or in part expended in bribery at any election;

(f) before or during any election, directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, receives, agrees or contracts for any money, gift, loan or valuable consideration, office, place, or employment, for himself or for any person, for voting or agreeing to vote, or for refraining or agreeing to refrain from voting at any election; or (g)        after any election, directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, receives any money or valuable consideration on account of any person having voted or refrained from voting, or having induced any other person to vote or refrain from voting, at any election, shall be guilty of bribery under this Act.

(2)A person who — (a)  corruptly by himself or by any other person, either before, during or after an election, directly or indirectly gives or provides, or pays in whole or in part the expenses of giving or providing, any food, drink, entertainment, or provision to or for any person for the purpose of corruptly influencing that person, or any other person, to vote or refrain from voting at such election; or (b) corruptly accepts or takes any such food, drink, entertainment or provision, shall be guilty of treating under this Act.

Corrompre, trafic d’influence, usurpation d'identité…ces pratiques interdites par la RoP ActTrafic D’influence

Il est strictement interdit d’utiliser la force, la violence ou menacer un électeur afin de l’obliger à voter ou à ne pas voter. Le jour du scrutin, personne ne doit intervenir auprès d’un électeur, l’ennuyer ou encore obtenir des informations sur son choix. Dans un périmètre de 200m du bureau de vote, personne n’a le droit de faire campagne ou donner des directives ou messages pour convaincre un électeur pour voter un candidat ou un parti politique.

65 Undue influence -(1)   A person who directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, makes use of, or threatens to make use of, any force, violence, or restraint, or inflicts, or threatens to inflict, by himself or by any other person any temporal or spiritual injury, damage, harm, or loss upon or against any person in order to induce or compel such person to vote or refrain from voting, or on account of such person having voted or refrained from voting, at any election, or who by abduction, duress or any fraudulent contrivance, impedes or prevents the free exercise of the franchise of any elector, or thereby compels, induces, or prevails upon, any elector either to give or refrain from giving his vote at any election, shall be guilty of undue influence under this Act.

(2)   Any person who on polling day —  (a) annoys, molests or otherwise interferes with an elector;

(b) attempts to obtain any information as to the candidate for whom an elector is about to vote or has voted, or as to the number on the ballot paper given to an elector;(c)  remains outside any voting room except for the purposes of gaining entry to the voting room in order to vote; or  (d) within two hundred metres of the precincts of a polling station — (i)loiters in any street, or open place; (ii)by word, message, writing or in any other manner, endeavours to persuade any person to vote for any candidate or party or dissuades any person from voting or from voting for any candidate or party, shall commit the offence of undue influence.

(3)    Any person who, as from the day of election appointed    under section 41(1) (b) and until the expiry of 3 days after the day appointed for the taking of a poll under section 41 (1) (a) (ii), opens or maintains, within 200 metres of the precincts of a polling station, for the purpose of any activity directed towards promoting or procuring the election of a candidate at an election, an office in any room, building or place whatsoever, whether public or private, open or closed, shall commit the offence of undue influence.

Les sanctions: Pour toute infraction à ces règlements , les amendes ne dépassent pas les Rs 2000 et la peine d’emprisonnement maximale est d’une année.

Usurpation d’identité

C’était une pratique souvent décriée dans les années 70/80. Il y a eu des cas isolés. Mais au fil du temps et avec un contrôle rigoureux, c’est devenu presque impossible. Usurper l’identité d’une autre personne et commettre le devoir civique à sa place est un délit très grave. Toute personne trouvée coupable de cette faute risque deux ans de prison et une disqualification pour une période de 7 ans.

67 Personation- Every person who—(a)   at an election applies for a ballot paper in the name of another person, whether that name is the name of a person living or dead, or of a fictitious person; or  (b)   having voted once at any election, applies at the same election for a ballot paper in his own name,          shall be guilty of personation under this Act.

Penalty for personation: A person who is guilty of personation, shall, on conviction, be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years.

69 Disqualification on conviction

Every person who is convicted of bribery, treating, undue influence or personation, shall, without prejudice to~ny other punishment, be incapable during a period of 7 years from the date of his conviction— (a)   of being registered as an elector, or of voting at any election; (b)   of being a candidate at an election or, if elected before his conviction, of retaining his seat.

Urnes et les bulletins de vote: 

Les urnes et les bulletins de vote sont les symboles mêmes d’une élection. Ainsi, la loi est claire. Personne n’a le droit de contrefaire ou détruire  un bulletin de vote ou la marque officielle sur un bulletin. Toute personne qui remet un bulletin à quelqu’un sans avoir été autorisée à le faire commet également un délit. Un électeur ne doit pas placer dans les urnes des documents autres que le bulletin qui lui a été remis ou encore de sortir de la salle avec le bulletin.

71 Offences in respect of ballot boxes  (1)Every person who —  (a)  forges or counterfeits, or fraudulently defaces or destroys, any ballot paper or the official mark on any ballot paper;

(b) without due authority supplies a ballot paper to any person;

(c)  fraudulently puts into any ballot box any paper other than the ballot paper which he is authorised by law to put in;

(d)  fraudulently takes out of the polling station any ballot paper; or  (e) without due authority destroys, takes, opens, or otherwise interferes with, any ballot box or packet of ballot papers then in use for the purposes of any election,  shall commit an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable in the case of a returning officer, or presiding officer, or clerk employed at a polling station, to a fine not exceeding 2,000 rupees and to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years and, in any other case to a fine not exceeding 500 rupees and to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months.

(2)In any information or prosecution for an offence in relation to the ballot boxes, ballot papers and other things in use at an election, the property in such ballot boxes, ballot papers or things, may be stated to be vested in the returning officer at such election.

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